One weekend when the weather was cloudy with very strong winds I thought I’d try out my long exposure technique described in the blog post of the same name, so I drove out to Brill with my Nikon Df. Brill is a location well known to photographers all over Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, and attractively perched on top of a steep hill, with an excellent view over the plain below. The result is shown to the right, I was quite pleased with it.
The origin of the name of the village is derived from both the Anglo-Saxon and Celtic words for hill (Bre-hyll). In the reign of Edward the Confessor it was called Bruhella. It is notable for its old post mill, the timbers of which reputedly date from 1685 and the clay pits were dug for the production of pottery and Brill bricks. The clay pits were in use from Roman times until the last bricks were produced in the 1920s. Roman occupation in the Brill area is highly probable as suggested by finds of tiles and pottery and the square earthworks believed to have been a Roman look-out. The village is also close to the Roman road of Akeman Street. It was a royal manor of the kings of Wessex in the Anglo-Saxon period and there was a Royal Palace at Brill until it was destroyed by the Parliamentarian John Hamden in 1643. Edward the Confessor, Henry II, John, Henry III and Stephen all held court there in the 12-13th centuries.
Brill was the scene of a battle during the English Civil War. After the Battle of Edgehill in November 1642 a royalist force occupied the village. Parliamentary troops were sent to oust the royalists, and on January 27th 1643 the two forces met in the Battle of Brill.
The royalists had thrown up sturdy earthworks, perhaps using remnants of Brill Castle. The Roundheads launched a fierce canonnade, but called off the attack after several hours when the Royalists lit damp straw on fire, creating a wall of choking smoke. Residue of the Royalist defenses can be seen in the village. During the 1830s an attempt was made to turn Brill into a spa town, as there is a spring between the nearby village of Dorton and Brill but royal patronage favoured Tunbridge Wells and Leamington Spa over the rather isolated village.
The Pheasant pub has outside seating that provides access to the view over a pint, which is very pleasant in the summer. The site of the windmill is a popular spot for a picnic, with children and dogs often scampering about amongst the undulations of the old clay pits, and of course there are plenty of photographers…
The exact date of the foundation of the city of Oxford is uncertain, but the place is ancient. Sited on an important crossing point across the Thames, which formed the frontier between the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, Oxford started as a ford for oxen (Oxenaforda). The castle (now just a mound) dates from 1071 and the oldest standing building, the Saxon tower of St Michael at the Northgate, was built in 1040. The Domesday book records the right of the town’s Freemen to graze animals in Port Meadow free of charge – a right still exercised today. The University started in monastic halls, though none of these survived the suppression of the monasteries in the 1530s. The city was well established as an academic centre by the 13th century with University, Balliol, and Merton Colleges all founded during that century.
Academic life in Oxford was characterised by murder in the stories of ’90s TV detective Inspector Morse, and this violence in academia was foreshadowed by a turbulent relationship between Oxford’s town people and students. The most notorious incident occurred in 1354 in the Swyndlestock Tavern (a bank today), when two students took issue with the innkeeper about the quality of his wine. This dispute quickly escalated into an armed conflict that lasted three days and resulted in around 90 deaths. Despite incidents like this and regular scholastic riots, by the mid 14th century the University was well established enough for Edward III to pay tribute to it for both its contribution to learning and the services to the state of Oxford graduates. Several colleges were founded every century and there are now 38 in total.
Oxford’s growth was inevitably accompanied by some reversals. In the 12th century a fire burned the city to the ground and the black death of the 14th century reduced the population heavily; as did the sweating sickness epidemic of the 16th century. The university benefited from these depopulations by buying up vacant property and continuing to grow its estates.
In the late 18th century Oxford connected to Coventry and the Thames, and in the mid In 1844, the Great Western Railway linked Oxford with London. The city became more industrial when the automotive industry was established in nearby Cowley by William Morris, who built the Morris Garage in Longwall street in 1910. The need for more space bought a move to a factory 1913 at Cowley and mass production followed, resulting in Cowley expanding into a large industrial centre. Despite its canal and railway links, the city had remained a tight knit , conservative and academic town, with the the university press the only large-scale employer. The car industry transformed Oxford into one of the major industrial cities of southern England, though happily the architectural gems of the old city have been well preserved, also being spared the devastation meted out to so many other cities during World War II.
As you might expect from such a historic city, there are numerous sights to be enjoyed in Oxford, which particularly photogenic, though it is often very crowded, especially in the summer. Here are my top ten: Continue reading “The Many Pleasures of Oxford”→
I recently returned from a Christmas break in Deal, Kent. It is where I spent the first 18 years of my life and is still very special to both me and my children. We stayed in an eighteenth century cottage in Middle Street, which is in the heart of the conservation area (the first in Kent) – where the press gangs and sailors of Nelson’s navy once roamed and one of the most beautiful streets in England.
Deal is steeped in history – originally known as Addelam, it is mentioned in the Doomsday book, and is unique in once having been a port without a harbour. Instead, the anchorage known as The Downs located between the Deal shoreline and the notorious ‘ship swallower’ of the Goodwin Sands provided shelter for ships in the channel, and Deal became a thriving port. Over time the Downs and the maritime traffic it generated made Deal worthy of protection by castles in the town itself and at nearby Sandown and Walmer and to become home to the Royal Marines.
In 1702 it was described as one of the four great ports of England, along with Portsmouth, Rochester and Plymouth and the town formed part of the defences of what became known as “the invasion coast”. Deal also had a unique status conferred upon it by Royal Charter in the 12th century which established the town as one of the confederation of five ports (The Cinque Ports) to serve the crown with ships as the need arose. In return the towns received exemption from tax and tolls. This led to extensive smuggling, particularly in the 17th and 18th centuries. Deal’s smuggling activities were so notorious that Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger had the town’s luggers (large, two masted open boats) burned on the beach. Deal’s boatmen also went to sea to for salvage and to save the lives of shipwreck victims and there has been a lifeboat stationed at nearby Walmer since the mid 19th century. There has also been a pier at Deal from the same period, though the present one dates from the mid 20th century.
There are many pleasures to be had whilst staying in Deal. Here’s ten of my favourites things to do, in no particular order:
A stroll along the broad promenade and then onto the pier (said to be the same length as the Titanic but actually 200 ft longer)
A walk through the winding narrow streets of the conversation area to admire the restored cottages and town houses, and perhaps to visit one of the fine old pubs like The Ship Inn, The Deal Hoy or the Royal Hotel (where Admiral Nelson frequently stayed. Nelson also donated the tomb of Captain Parker, inscribed “My gallant good friend and able assistant”, which can be found in St George’s Churchyard.)
Coffee or a bite to eat in the Black Douglas (run by the descendants of the Scottish knight)
Sitting out on the seafront in front of the picturesque Kings Arms
I have seen some astonishing black and white photography that uses very strong neutral density (ND) filters such as the B+W ND 110 to blur cloud movement using a long exposure. I wanted to get some shots with the same effect into my portfolio. The B+W 110 is not for the faint hearted because it is so black the camera typically can’t meter or focus through it, but I’ve tried lesser NDs and they are just not strong enough for the full effect. The real full on long exposure effect can be stunning, and I obtained reasonably pleasing results on the shoot, so I’m going to keep going. The picture on the left is entitled ‘The Road to Nowhere’ and is a small road that runs just off the A41 between Aylesbury and Bicester towards Brill, where I also shot that day. After some experimentation I found the following to work quite well:
Ideally you should shoot on a cloudy day with strong winds so that you can capture the movement as a blur. The direction and speed of movement of the clouds is of interest as movement across the frame versus towards or away from you look quite different.
Set up your camera on a tripod. Make sure it is really secure, especially if you are in a high wind. If you have a strap attached to the camera make sure it is not flapping about. Ideally you should be using a cable release or remote to release the shutter.
Compose a test shot without the filter, in aperture priority mode – setting the desired aperture, which will typically be small (I mainly used f16). Typically you will want to set a low ISO, shoot using Raw and disable lens vibration reduction as it is not helpful on a tripod.
Focus using auto focus and take note of the shutter speed.
Next, screw in your B+W 110 10 stop neutral density filter, and switch to manual focus and manual mode.
In Manual mode set the shutter speed to 1000 times the shutter speed of the meter reading for the test shot, keeping the same aperture setting and using the bulb setting if necessary.
Take the shot and look at the result. Adjust the shutter setting as desired until you get the exposure you want.
Take off the ND filter, flip back to aperture mode and autofocus and take a bracket of 3 shots that can be used with the long exposure to create a properly exposed image.